Spline Coupling

A spline coupling is a mechanical element used to connect and transmit torque between two rotating shafts.

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During the operation of a spline coupling, there are two types of loads: angular contact loads and linear contact loads (or vice versa). To allow interaction between the two loads, each spline can be made parallel or involute.

Splines are usually formed at equal intervals in the groove, which minimizes stress concentrations in fixed joints under high loads, or can be incorporated into channels that recirculate the balls, allowing free linear motion even under high torque. They can also have grooves that form a helix around the shaft, providing a stiffer joint for high torque.

To analyze the dynamic response of the spline coupling, finite element analysis is applied to a model describing the entire system. To determine the damage caused by the relative motion between the meshing teeth in a spline coupling, the surface roughness parameters of the spline teeth were analyzed.

What are Splined Couplings?

Splined Coupling

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Advantages of Spline Couplings

Designed to transmit torque between shafts without keys, these couplings will not break, so they protect downstream components from high loads or shock loads. They also transmit torque more evenly, reducing forces on the hub and eliminating movement and backlash during assembly and maintenance. They can be adapted to different application needs.

Serrated splines are formed from evenly spaced grooves with sloped sides that center the shaft and hub. They are used in non-axial moving applications and have smaller teeth than straight edge splines.

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Application of Spline Coupling

Spline couplings are used to transmit torque between two shafts by meshing internal or external teeth on the shaft with internal or external teeth on the gear hub. They can be involute, parallel, zigzag or helical. They are used in aerospace, manufacturing, wind power and automotive, among other fields.

Misalignment of splined couplings is a significant concern as it can lead to system vibration, contact damage and mechanical instability. This problem is often overlooked, but is a real challenge that needs to be addressed.

To reduce the effects of misalignment, many splined shafts are manufactured in such a way that the splines have high precision and accuracy. Additionally, the splines themselves are usually designed to be very strong.

This enables them to be used in many applications where strength is a critical factor and spline couplings can be fabricated from steel, aluminum or other exotic metals. They can be made from a single billet of steel or aluminum and then machined to the desired shape and size.

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