Mandrel of Pay-off Reel and Tension Reel
For hot rolling
The mandrel is the key part of hot rolling tension reel for coils.; Coiling temperature is between 550 to 850ºC.; The mandrel has mainly 2 types:; link wedge type and double wedge type.;
Link wedge type can also be divided into 2 kinds:; link wedge-coupling drive and link-spline drive.;
For link wedge-coupling type tension reel,; the mandrel is mainly composed of mandrel body,; spreader bar,; segment,; link,; wedge and spreading cylinder.; Spreader bar has multistage slopes and segment is supported by multistage wedge.; Segment is connected with spreader bar by link so segment does not drop off.; With compression spring in the middle of wedge,; wedge can firmly contact segment and pyramid surface.; There is a gap between the upper surface of wedge and segment,; which can reduce the impact of coil head to mandrel during coiling coil.; Mandrel body is installed on 2 bearings.; Power is transmitted by crowned-teeth coupling in the real.; It is very convenient to dismantle,; and due to there is no gear impact during working,; mandrel rigidity is improved.; It’s very beneficial to control the dynamic tension.;
The spreading principle of mandrel:; spreader bar moves inside mandrel body in axial direction dreivern by hydraulic cylinder,; the slant of sperader bar pushes the wedge inside radial hole of mandrel body to move outward.; The wedge surface pushes segment to expand outward.; Wedge diameter will expand.; After coiling coils,; spreader bar moves in the opposite direction driven by hydraulic cylinder,; and pulls segment to shrink through link.; Wedge moves inward and mandrel diameter becomes smaller to discharge state.; Then you can begin to discharge coil.;
For the 2 types of link wedge-coupling drive and link wedge-spline drive,; the mandrel structures and principles are almost same and the main difference is drive type of mandrel.; For link wedge-spline drive type,; connection between mandrel and main transmission cases is spline,; i.;e.; insert type.; When mouting and dismantling,; mandrel can be directly inserted or pulled out of the main transmission cases to achieve the rapid replacement.;
The main driving motor drives gear shaft rotation through the intermediate shaft.; The gear shaft dirves big gear rotation,; and the big gear drives mandrel rotation through spline.;
For the double wedge type tension reel,; the mandrel is mainly composed of mandrel body,; spreader bar,; segment,; spreader wedge,; buffer wege and hyd.; Cylinder.;
The spreading principle of double wedge type mandrel:; hyd.; Cylinder makes spreader bar move back and forth in axial direction and the wedge move in radical direction.; So the segment becomes big.; T-hook on spreader bar pulls wedge back and the hook outside the wedge pulls segment back.; This will make the manderel small.; With spline connectiion for power transmission unit,; mandrel can be rapidly replaced.; Cooling water channel inside the mandrel,; so cooling effect is good.; Lubricant can be injected by auto and manual type,; so it can reduce parts wear.;
Pay-off reel and tension reel for cold rolling coils are used in cold rolling production line or pay-off when acid pickling,;galvanization,;annealing,;shear,;coating or coil tension in out let.;
Cold rolling mandrel is the key part of pay-off reel and tension reel.; According to different structure,; it has beam wedge type,; pyramid axis type,; pyramid sleeve type,; wedge type,; radial direction hydraulic cylinder type,; etc.; Or simply,; open type and close type.; The close type mandrel is a close circle without gap in the surface after expanding.;it is suitable for coiling thin strip steel.; The open type mandrel means there is a gap between segments after mandrel expanding,; suitable for coiling thicker strip steel.;
For cold rolling
Pay-off reel and tension reel for cold rolling coils are used in cold rolling production line or pay-off when acid pickling,; gavanization,; annealing,; shear,; coating or coil tension in outlet.;
Cold rolling mandrel is the key parts of pay-off reel&tension reel.; According to different structure,; it has beam wedge type,; pyramid axis type,; pyramid sleeve type,; wedge type,; radial direction hydraulic cylinder type,; ect.; Or simply,; open type and close type.; The close type mandrel is a close circle without gap in the surface after expanding.; It is suitable for coiling thin strip steel.; The open type mandrel means there are a gap between segment after mandrel expanding,; suitable for coiling thicker strip steel.;
The beam wedge type mandrel is mainly composed of the main shaft,; expanding core,; segment,; axial direction wedge,; radial direction wedge and spreading cylinder,; etc.; There are 2 kinds of structure:; with jaw or without jaw.; The mandrel with jaw is used for coiling thicker strip steel.; It can also be set with steel sleeve or paper sleeve to coil with belt wrapper.; The mandrel without jaw is used for coiling thin strip steel by belt wrapper.;
The mandrel will move along axial direction driven by the expanding core & wedge block,; through relative sliding between the wedge block and segment,; swelling and shrinking will occur in radial direction,; reset by spring.;
The pyramidal axis type mandrel is divided into tapper type and back taper type according to the tilting direction of axis slope.; This mandrel has simple structure ,;less parts,; large main shaft section and high strength .;So it can bear large tension,; not only coiling ,;but also uncoiling.; There are 2 kinds of structure:; with jaw or without jaw .;it’s mainly consisted of the pyramid axis,; segment,; hollow sleeve and spreading cylinder,; etc.;
Presently,; the back taper type mandrel is the most popular.; The oil goes into the cylinder via a rod cavity.; The cylinder pulls the pyramidal shaft backward along axial direction and push segment to expand outside,; so the drum is expanded.; Pyramidal axis moves back ward along axial direction,; and segment is pulled back by the T-key,; thus the mandrel is shrinked.;
How to Calculate Stiffness, Centering Force, Wear and Fatigue Failure of Spline Couplings
There are various types of spline couplings. These couplings have several important properties. These properties are: Stiffness, Involute splines, Misalignment, Wear and fatigue failure. To understand how these characteristics relate to spline couplings, read this article. It will give you the necessary knowledge to determine which type of coupling best suits your needs. Keeping in mind that spline couplings are usually spherical in shape, they are made of steel.
An effective side interference condition minimizes gear misalignment. When 2 splines are coupled with no spline misalignment, the maximum tensile root stress shifts to the left by 5 mm. A linear lead variation, which results from multiple connections along the length of the spline contact, increases the effective clearance or interference by a given percentage. This type of misalignment is undesirable for coupling high-speed equipment.
Involute splines are often used in gearboxes. These splines transmit high torque, and are better able to distribute load among multiple teeth throughout the coupling circumference. The involute profile and lead errors are related to the spacing between spline teeth and keyways. For coupling applications, industry practices use splines with 25 to 50-percent of spline teeth engaged. This load distribution is more uniform than that of conventional single-key couplings.
To determine the optimal tooth engagement for an involved spline coupling, Xiangzhen Xue and colleagues used a computer model to simulate the stress applied to the splines. The results from this study showed that a “permissible” Ruiz parameter should be used in coupling. By predicting the amount of wear and tear on a crowned spline, the researchers could accurately predict how much damage the components will sustain during the coupling process.
There are several ways to determine the optimal pressure angle for an involute spline. Involute splines are commonly measured using a pressure angle of 30 degrees. Similar to gears, involute splines are typically tested through a measurement over pins. This involves inserting specific-sized wires between gear teeth and measuring the distance between them. This method can tell whether the gear has a proper tooth profile.
The spline system shown in Figure 1 illustrates a vibration model. This simulation allows the user to understand how involute splines are used in coupling. The vibration model shows 4 concentrated mass blocks that represent the prime mover, the internal spline, and the load. It is important to note that the meshing deformation function represents the forces acting on these 3 components.
Stiffness of coupling
The calculation of stiffness of a spline coupling involves the measurement of its tooth engagement. In the following, we analyze the stiffness of a spline coupling with various types of teeth using 2 different methods. Direct inversion and blockwise inversion both reduce CPU time for stiffness calculation. However, they require evaluation submatrices. Here, we discuss the differences between these 2 methods.
The analytical model for spline couplings is derived in the second section. In the third section, the calculation process is explained in detail. We then validate this model against the FE method. Finally, we discuss the influence of stiffness nonlinearity on the rotor dynamics. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We present a simple yet effective method for estimating the lateral stiffness of spline couplings.
The numerical calculation of the spline coupling is based on the semi-analytical spline load distribution model. This method involves refined contact grids and updating the compliance matrix at each iteration. Hence, it consumes significant computational time. Further, it is difficult to apply this method to the dynamic analysis of a rotor. This method has its own limitations and should be used only when the spline coupling is fully investigated.
The meshing force is the force generated by a misaligned spline coupling. It is related to the spline thickness and the transmitting torque of the rotor. The meshing force is also related to the dynamic vibration displacement. The result obtained from the meshing force analysis is given in Figures 7, 8, and 9.
The analysis presented in this paper aims to investigate the stiffness of spline couplings with a misaligned spline. Although the results of previous studies were accurate, some issues remained. For example, the misalignment of the spline may cause contact damages. The aim of this article is to investigate the problems associated with misaligned spline couplings and propose an analytical approach for estimating the contact pressure in a spline connection. We also compare our results to those obtained by pure numerical approaches.
To determine the centering force, the effective pressure angle must be known. Using the effective pressure angle, the centering force is calculated based on the maximum axial and radial loads and updated Dudley misalignment factors. The centering force is the maximum axial force that can be transmitted by friction. Several published misalignment factors are also included in the calculation. A new method is presented in this paper that considers the cam effect in the normal force.
In this new method, the stiffness along the spline joint can be integrated to obtain a global stiffness that is applicable to torsional vibration analysis. The stiffness of bearings can also be calculated at given levels of misalignment, allowing for accurate estimation of bearing dimensions. It is advisable to check the stiffness of bearings at all times to ensure that they are properly sized and aligned.
A misalignment in a spline coupling can result in wear or even failure. This is caused by an incorrectly aligned pitch profile. This problem is often overlooked, as the teeth are in contact throughout the involute profile. This causes the load to not be evenly distributed along the contact line. Consequently, it is important to consider the effect of misalignment on the contact force on the teeth of the spline coupling.
The centre of the male spline in Figure 2 is superposed on the female spline. The alignment meshing distances are also identical. Hence, the meshing force curves will change according to the dynamic vibration displacement. It is necessary to know the parameters of a spline coupling before implementing it. In this paper, the model for misalignment is presented for spline couplings and the related parameters.
Using a self-made spline coupling test rig, the effects of misalignment on a spline coupling are studied. In contrast to the typical spline coupling, misalignment in a spline coupling causes fretting wear at a specific position on the tooth surface. This is a leading cause of failure in these types of couplings.
Wear and fatigue failure
The failure of a spline coupling due to wear and fatigue is determined by the first occurrence of tooth wear and shaft misalignment. Standard design methods do not account for wear damage and assess the fatigue life with big approximations. Experimental investigations have been conducted to assess wear and fatigue damage in spline couplings. The tests were conducted on a dedicated test rig and special device connected to a standard fatigue machine. The working parameters such as torque, misalignment angle, and axial distance have been varied in order to measure fatigue damage. Over dimensioning has also been assessed.
During fatigue and wear, mechanical sliding takes place between the external and internal splines and results in catastrophic failure. The lack of literature on the wear and fatigue of spline couplings in aero-engines may be due to the lack of data on the coupling’s application. Wear and fatigue failure in splines depends on a number of factors, including the material pair, geometry, and lubrication conditions.
The analysis of spline couplings shows that over-dimensioning is common and leads to different damages in the system. Some of the major damages are wear, fretting, corrosion, and teeth fatigue. Noise problems have also been observed in industrial settings. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contact behavior of spline couplings, and numerical simulations are often hampered by the use of specific codes and the boundary element method.
The failure of a spline gear coupling was caused by fatigue, and the fracture initiated at the bottom corner radius of the keyway. The keyway and splines had been overloaded beyond their yield strength, and significant yielding was observed in the spline gear teeth. A fracture ring of non-standard alloy steel exhibited a sharp corner radius, which was a significant stress raiser.
Several components were studied to determine their life span. These components include the spline shaft, the sealing bolt, and the graphite ring. Each of these components has its own set of design parameters. However, there are similarities in the distributions of these components. Wear and fatigue failure of spline couplings can be attributed to a combination of the 3 factors. A failure mode is often defined as a non-linear distribution of stresses and strains.