GX tubular screw conveyor is bulk material handling equipment, which usually consists of a tube containing either a spiral blade coiled around a shaft (sometimes called an auger), driven at 1 end and held at the other. The main parts include tube, shaft with spiral blades, inlet and outlet chutes, as well as driving device.
The closed pipe-type screw conveyor is a pipe with a shaft inside with welded screw blades and passive bearing. The screw’s blades have different pitch which depends on the type of the transported raw material and the planned capacity. This type of conveyor is closed, which means that the screw cannot be accessed directly. Due to the closed structure, the transported raw material does not spill outside the machine during transport.
The machine can be equipped with a pull screw. In this version, the drive unit is located in the direction of the raw material feeding. Some screw conveyors are equipped with push screws with gear motor installed on the feeding side. The screw conveyor is fitted with an initial or end bearing. Depending on the type of transported raw material, slide or bearing rests are installed.
Horizontal screw conveyor has the advantages of sealed operation, simple structure. screw conveyor suitable for conveying powdery, granular and small bulk materials horizontally or aslope, such as coal, ash, slag, cement, food, etc. screw conveyor is an new transportation equipment
The screw conveyor consists of power device, gear box, coupling, screw axis and hanging bearing. The screw axis is made of several sections which connected with spline. Hence, the conveyor hold large load capacity and convenient to dismounting. It is open a besel on the casing to ensure a safe operation.
The material moves along the spiral within the tube. The unique action of the flexible spiral conveyor eliminates the risk of the product separation that can take place in conventional pneumatic conveying systems where mixed materials have components of different densities and particle size.
1.Simple structure, good sealing, large capacity, long service life.
2.Convenient installation and maintenance, as well as easy operation.
3.Working temperature is -20~50ºC, with material temperature below 200 ºC.
4.Suitable for horizontal and slightly inclined transport of powdery, granular and small lump materials, such as coal, ash, clinker, cement, grain, etc.
5.Widely used in construction, chemical, power, metallurgy, coal and CZPT industries, etc.
1.It can be sealed to prevent the escape of dust or fumes from inside the conveyor; or prevent dust contamination from outside the conveyor.
2.It can be used to control the flow of material in processing operations which depend upon accurate batching
3.It can be utilized in the horizontal, vertical or any inclined position depending upon the characteristics of the product being conveyed.
4.It can be used as a mixer or agitator to blend dry or fluid ingredients, provide crystallization or coagulant action, or maintain solutions in suspension.
5.Screw conveyors can have multiple conveyor outlets, making discharge to multiple outlets cost effective.
6.It can be jacketed to serve as a drier or cooler by running hot or cold water through the jacket.
7.It can be made out of a variety of materials to resist corrosion, abrasion or heat, depending upon the product being conveyed.
8.It can be outfitted with multiple inlet and discharge points.
Routine periodic inspection of the entire conveyor must be established to ensure continuous maximum operating performance. Keep the area around the conveyor and its drive clean and free of obstacles to provide easy access and avoid functional interference of components.
2.Power Lock Out
Lock out power to the motor before attempting any maintenance. Use a padlock and tag on the drive’s controls. Do not remove padlock or tag, nor operate conveyor, until all covers and guards are securely in place.
3.Removing Screw Sections
Screw sections are typically removed starting with the end opposite the drive when necessary. Remove trough end, screw sections, coupling shafts, and hangers until damaged or worn section is removed. Reassemble conveyor in reverse order.
Periodically remove and inspect 1 of the drive shaft coupling bolts for damage or wear. Also inspect the coupling bolt hole. The drive shaft coupling bolts transmit more power than successive coupling bolts and will typically indicate the greatest wear. An accurate torque wrench should always be used when tightening coupling bolts. Excessive torque will stretch the bolt and significantly compromise its strength.
Lubricate end bearings, hanger bearings and drive components at the frequency and quantity specified by the individual component’s manufacturer. Most types of hanger bearings require lubrication and wear is reduced significantly with a frequent lubrication schedule. Frequency of schedule depends on temperature, type of bearings, type of lubrication, product conveyed, trough load, screw weight, etc.)
6.Screw Bushings/Internal Collars
The bushing at each end of a screw will wear over time. When possible, check for excessive shaft movement that indicates bushings need to be replaced. Longer and heavier screws typically have greater bushing wear.
Selection condition :
Primary considerations for the selection of a screw conveyor are as follow:
1.Type and condition of the materials to be handled, including maximum particle size, and, if available, the specific bulk density of the material to be conveyed.
2.Quantity of transported material, expressed in pounds or tons per hour.
3.The distance for which the material is to be conveyed.
Below is the necessary information for the selection of a screw conveyor system, presented in a series of 5 steps. These steps are arranged in logical order, and are divided into separate sections for simplicity.
The 5 steps are:
1.Establishing the characteristics of the material to be conveyed.
2.Locating conveyor capacity (conveyor size and speed) on capacity tables.
3.Selection of conveyor components.
4.Calculation of required horsepower.
5.Checking of components torque capacities (including selection of shaft types and sizes)
|Screw Rotation Speed
20, 30, 35, 45, 60,
75, 90, 120, 150, 190
Analytical Approaches to Estimating Contact Pressures in Spline Couplings
A spline coupling is a type of mechanical connection between 2 rotating shafts. It consists of 2 parts – a coupler and a coupling. Both parts have teeth which engage and transfer loads. However, spline couplings are typically over-dimensioned, which makes them susceptible to fatigue and static behavior. Wear phenomena can also cause the coupling to fail. For this reason, proper spline coupling design is essential for achieving optimum performance.
Modeling a spline coupling
Spline couplings are becoming increasingly popular in the aerospace industry, but they operate in a slightly misaligned state, causing both vibrations and damage to the contact surfaces. To solve this problem, this article offers analytical approaches for estimating the contact pressures in a spline coupling. Specifically, this article compares analytical approaches with pure numerical approaches to demonstrate the benefits of an analytical approach.
To model a spline coupling, first you create the knowledge base for the spline coupling. The knowledge base includes a large number of possible specification values, which are related to each other. If you modify 1 specification, it may lead to a warning for violating another. To make the design valid, you must create a spline coupling model that meets the specified specification values.
After you have modeled the geometry, you must enter the contact pressures of the 2 spline couplings. Then, you need to determine the position of the pitch circle of the spline. In Figure 2, the centre of the male coupling is superposed to that of the female spline. Then, you need to make sure that the alignment meshing distance of the 2 splines is the same.
Once you have the data you need to create a spline coupling model, you can begin by entering the specifications for the interface design. Once you have this data, you need to choose whether to optimize the internal spline or the external spline. You’ll also need to specify the tooth friction coefficient, which is used to determine the stresses in the spline coupling model 20. You should also enter the pilot clearance, which is the clearance between the tip 186 of a tooth 32 on 1 spline and the feature on the mating spline.
After you have entered the desired specifications for the external spline, you can enter the parameters for the internal spline. For example, you can enter the outer diameter limit 154 of the major snap 54 and the minor snap 56 of the internal spline. The values of these parameters are displayed in color-coded boxes on the Spline Inputs and Configuration GUI screen 80. Once the parameters are entered, you’ll be presented with a geometric representation of the spline coupling model 20.
Creating a spline coupling model 20
The spline coupling model 20 is created by a product model software program 10. The software validates the spline coupling model against a knowledge base of configuration-dependent specification constraints and relationships. This report is then input to the ANSYS stress analyzer program. It lists the spline coupling model 20’s geometric configurations and specification values for each feature. The spline coupling model 20 is automatically recreated every time the configuration or performance specifications of the spline coupling model 20 are modified.
The spline coupling model 20 can be configured using the product model software program 10. A user specifies the axial length of the spline stack, which may be zero, or a fixed length. The user also enters a radial mating face 148, if any, and selects a pilot clearance specification value of 14.5 degrees or 30 degrees.
A user can then use the mouse 110 to modify the spline coupling model 20. The spline coupling knowledge base contains a large number of possible specification values and the spline coupling design rule. If the user tries to change a spline coupling model, the model will show a warning about a violation of another specification. In some cases, the modification may invalidate the design.
In the spline coupling model 20, the user enters additional performance requirement specifications. The user chooses the locations where maximum torque is transferred for the internal and external splines 38 and 40. The maximum torque transfer location is determined by the attachment configuration of the hardware to the shafts. Once this is selected, the user can click “Next” to save the model. A preview of the spline coupling model 20 is displayed.
The model 20 is a representation of a spline coupling. The spline specifications are entered in the order and arrangement as specified on the spline coupling model 20 GUI screen. Once the spline coupling specifications are entered, the product model software program 10 will incorporate them into the spline coupling model 20. This is the last step in spline coupling model creation.
Analysing a spline coupling model 20
An analysis of a spline coupling model consists of inputting its configuration and performance specifications. These specifications may be generated from another computer program. The product model software program 10 then uses its internal knowledge base of configuration dependent specification relationships and constraints to create a valid three-dimensional parametric model 20. This model contains information describing the number and types of spline teeth 32, snaps 34, and shoulder 36.
When you are analysing a spline coupling, the software program 10 will include default values for various specifications. The spline coupling model 20 comprises an internal spline 38 and an external spline 40. Each of the splines includes its own set of parameters, such as its depth, width, length, and radii. The external spline 40 will also contain its own set of parameters, such as its orientation.
Upon selecting these parameters, the software program will perform various analyses on the spline coupling model 20. The software program 10 calculates the nominal and maximal tooth bearing stresses and fatigue life of a spline coupling. It will also determine the difference in torsional windup between an internal and an external spline. The output file from the analysis will be a report file containing model configuration and specification data. The output file may also be used by other computer programs for further analysis.
Once these parameters are set, the user enters the design criteria for the spline coupling model 20. In this step, the user specifies the locations of maximum torque transfer for both the external and internal spline 38. The maximum torque transfer location depends on the configuration of the hardware attached to the shafts. The user may enter up to 4 different performance requirement specifications for each spline.
The results of the analysis show that there are 2 phases of spline coupling. The first phase shows a large increase in stress and vibration. The second phase shows a decline in both stress and vibration levels. The third stage shows a constant meshing force between 300N and 320N. This behavior continues for a longer period of time, until the final stage engages with the surface.
Misalignment of a spline coupling
A study aimed to investigate the position of the resultant contact force in a spline coupling engaging teeth under a steady torque and rotating misalignment. The study used numerical methods based on Finite Element Method (FEM) models. It produced numerical results for nominal conditions and parallel offset misalignment. The study considered 2 levels of misalignment – 0.02 mm and 0.08 mm – with different loading levels.
The results showed that the misalignment between the splines and rotors causes a change in the meshing force of the spline-rotor coupling system. Its dynamics is governed by the meshing force of splines. The meshing force of a misaligned spline coupling is related to the rotor-spline coupling system parameters, the transmitting torque, and the dynamic vibration displacement.
Despite the lack of precise measurements, the misalignment of splines is a common problem. This problem is compounded by the fact that splines usually feature backlash. This backlash is the result of the misaligned spline. The authors analyzed several splines, varying pitch diameters, and length/diameter ratios.
A spline coupling is a two-dimensional mechanical system, which has positive backlash. The spline coupling is comprised of a hub and shaft, and has tip-to-root clearances that are larger than the backlash. A form-clearance is sufficient to prevent tip-to-root fillet contact. The torque on the splines is transmitted via friction.
When a spline coupling is misaligned, a torque-biased thrust force is generated. In such a situation, the force can exceed the torque, causing the component to lose its alignment. The two-way transmission of torque and thrust is modeled analytically in the present study. The analytical approach provides solutions that can be integrated into the design process. So, the next time you are faced with a misaligned spline coupling problem, make sure to use an analytical approach!
In this study, the spline coupling is analyzed under nominal conditions without a parallel offset misalignment. The stiffness values obtained are the percentage difference between the nominal pitch diameter and load application diameter. Moreover, the maximum percentage difference in the measured pitch diameter is 1.60% under a torque of 5000 N*m. The other parameter, the pitch angle, is taken into consideration in the calculation.